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Fig. i2i. The Ceucifixion Of St. Fetee. In St. Peter's Church at Cologne. (To page 152.)

more modern works; 8 of which were by Van Dyck, 17 by Adrian Brouwer, several more, upon which Breughel and Saftleben had worked with Rubens himself, and some sketches from the master's own hand. The sale of this collection realized about 280,000 florins equal to about £ 50,000 of English money. The King of Spain was the principal purchaser and acquired no less than 32 pictures, amongst which were 10 by Rubens himself. These now rank among the greatest of the Art-treasures in the Madrid Museum. The Emperor of Germany, the King of Poland, the Elector Palatine and Cardinal Richelieu were likewise among the buyers.

The drawings of the master were sold subsequently when the youngest of his sons attained his 18th year; since, strange to say, none of them showed any inclination towards painting, nor did any of his daughters marry a painter. Rubens' eldest son Albert, who succeeded his father as Secretary of the Privy-Council, was a distinguished archeologist. Of Nicholas we can only learn that he died at the age of 37. Francis was elected Councillor at the Court of Brabant, and Peter Paul became a priest. Of the daughters, the eldest Clara Joanna married Philip von Parys and it is among her descendants that the line of Rubens can still be traced. Isabella Helena died at the age of 17, and the youngest Constantia Albertina, born after her father's death, took the veil.

Helena Fourment, the young widow, married again in 1645 an Assessor of Antwerp, Johann Baptist van Broeckhoven, who was subsequently created Count of Bergeyk. She lived until 1673.

The house, which Rubens had built with so much artistic taste and in which he had displayed so much splendour, was sold in 1669 by his grandson Philip. But its architectural appearence remained unchanged until 1763, when it was rebuilt according to the style of that period. The greater number of the sculptures by Fayd'herbe, with which the garden was adorned, were also removed at that date. Later on in our own time, the building was still further altered. Not only were two houses contrived out of the original one, but its finest portion, the vaulted dome under which the master's Collections had been housed, was entirely demolished.

Rubens' influence on Flemish art was for centuries a most powerful one. We may even assert with good reason, that never before had a single artist left so powerful and lasting an effect on the Art of his own country as was the case with this great artist. We have seen that the example of other great masters were fatal to their younger contemporaries, because they inspired imitation, and imitation gives the death-blow to true Art. But Rubens was not imitated, since in his case imitation was impossible. It was rather his spirit which acted with such life-giving effect on the artists around him: and he was not only the most prolific of artists,— for he painted at least 1300 pictures, of which two-thirds were executed almost entirely by his own hand — but also the most many-sided. For this reason he influenced his followers without, at the same time destroying their individuality. We may see his impulse alike in Van Dyck's portraits, and in Teniers' subjects: — alike in the landscapes as well as the "studies in stilllife" of the Belgian school. All bear his mark, even the historical compositions executed at that period. Sculptors and architects also learned from him; whilst, as we have seen, the reproduction of his designs perfected the Art of wood-carving in Belgium at a time when no artistic wood-cuts existed anywhere else. The broad lines, which give so picturesque an effect to the Flemish etchings of the 17"> century, are principally due to the Art of Rubens, assiduously studied and reproduced by the engravers, since the entire fabric of baroque art in Belgium centred solely in the person of this, its great founder.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Frontispiece. Portrait of Rubens by himself. In the Imperial Gallery at Vienna . Page 2

Fig. I. Alleged Portrait of the artist's mother. In the Pinakothck at Munich . . ,, 6

,, 2. The Apostles Peter and Paul. Drawing in the Albertina at Vienna ,, 7

„ 3. Portrait of a young man. In the Pinakothek at Munich ,, 8

„ 4. Democritos, from a series of antique portrait - heads. Engraving by

L. Vostcrmann „ 9

,, 5. Demosthenes, from a series of antique portrait - busts designed by Rubens.

Engraving by II. Witdock ,, 10

„ 6. Tiberius and Agrippina. In the Liechtenstein Gallery at Vienna .... ,, II

,, 7. Study of heads and hands. In the Albertina at Vienna „ 12

„ 8. Head of a Bishop. In the Dresden Gallery „ 13

,, 9. Christ, from a series of drawings: Christ and the twelve Apostles. In the

Albertina at Vienna ,, 14

,, 10. Portrait of a Franciscan Monk. In the Pinakothek at Munich .... ,, 15

,, II. Abraham and Melchisedek. Drawing in the Albertina at Vienna ... ,, 16

,, 12. Victory crowning a Hero. In the Pinakothek at Munich „ 17

„ 13. The Rivergod Tiber (or Tigris) with the Goddess of Plenty In the

Hermitage at St. Petersburg ,, 19

,, 14. Rubens and his wife Isabella Brant. In the Pinakothek at Munich ... ,, 20

,, 15. The Altar of St. Ildefonso. In'the Imperial Gallery at Vienna .... ,, 21

,, i6.'"The Elevation of the Cross. Drawing in black and red chalk on green

paper, washed and hightened with white; in the Louvre at Paris . . ,, 23

,, I7«^—The Elevation of the Cross. From an engraving by Witdoek .... „ 24

18. The Descent from the Cross. In the Antwerp Museum ,, 25

,, 19. St. Christophorus. In the Pinakothek at Munich „ 26

,, 20. The Descent from the Cross. In the Hermitage at St. Petersburg ... ,, 27

„ 21. Portrait of an unknown man. In the Gallery at Cassel ,, 28

,, 22. Perseus and Andromeda. In the Hermitage at St. Petersburg ,, 29

,, 23. Perseus and Andromeda. In the Berlin Museum ,, 30

24. Studies of Putti. Pen and ink drawing in the Albertina at Vienna ... „ 31

25. Madonna with the Holy Innocents. In the Louvre „ 32

,, 26. The Garland of Fruit. In the Pinakothek at Munich ,, 33

,. 27. The Picture of Ceres. In the Hermitage, St. Petersburg ,, 35

,, 28. The Lamentation for Christ. In the Imperial Museum at Vienna ... ,, 36

Knackfi'ss, Rubens. 11

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