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oppose it."

what I intend to do with parliamentary reform: I answer, to oppose it, as I have ever invariably done. I have been also asked what course I mean to adopt with regard to the test-act question : my reply is, to

A very high degree of excellence has, with justice, been attributed to his orations. He enshrined the most appropriate classical allusions, the most brilliant ideas, and the most exquisite irony, in language, which, with rare exceptions, even when uttered without premeditation, no art could refine, to which no labour could give an additional polish. For elegance, and purity of composition, he has, perhaps, never been excelled; and in taste, with regard to rhetorical ornaments, but seldom been equalled. His raillery was often irresistible, his wit pure and poignant, and his humour at once admirably refined, and -remarkably effective. He was possessed of so large a share of political courage, that during his whole public life, he was rarely known to flinch from an adversary, however powerful; or avoid an attack, however wellmerited. His boldness, especially at the early part of his career, often rose into arrogance; and his retorts degenerated into daring vituperation. But his speeches, as well as his opinions, improved with his years; they became more noble, manly, and conciliating, in proportion to his success; and, at length, he ceased altogether to bolster up a bad case, by reckless assertions; or to overwhelm an opponent with virulence, whom he could not silence by argument. He rarely lost his perfect self-possession, but when in the fervid utterance of his thoughts he rose into the most lofty and spirit-stirring eloquence. As an instance of the effect which he frequently produced on his auditors, it is related, that when, one night, in allusion to the part he had taken in recognising the infant republics, in South America, he exclaimed, in the style and manner of Chatham, that looking to Spain in the Indies, he had called a new world into existence to redress the balance of the old, the effect was actually terrific :-"it was,” says a periodical writer, as if every man in the house had been electrified: Tierney who had previously been shifting his seat, removing his hat and putting it on again, and taking large and frequent pinches of snuff, seemed petrified, an 1 sat fixed and staring, with his mouth open, for half a minute.”

The beauty of Canning's celebrated poetical pieces, in the Anti-Jacobin, is much debased by the contemptible abuse of those who were opposed to his own party. They are, however, perhaps, the finest political lampoons that have ever been written: one of them, Elijah's Mantle, is particularly vivid, pungent, and felicitous.

THOMAS CHALMERS,

PROFESSOR of moral philosophy in the university of St. Andrews, was born about the year 1770, in Scotland, and proceeded to the degree of D. D., in one of the universities of his native country. He officiated for many years as minister of Kilmany; but, having become famous for his oratory, he was invited to Edinburgh, and his reputation still extending, he at length obtained the valuable ministry of St. John's, Glasgow. In 1823, during a brief visit to London, he preached repeatedly to immense congregations. His works consist of An Address to the Înhabitants of the Parish of Kilmany, on the Duty of giving an immediate Diligence to the Business of Christian Life; Scripture References; The Utility of Missions, Ascertained from Experience; An Inquiry into the Extent and Stability of National Revenues; The Influence of Bible Societies on the Temporal Necessities of the Poor; The Evidence and Authority of the Christian Revelation; A Series of Discourses on the Christian Revelation viewed in Connexion with Modern Astronomy; Sermons preached at the Tron church, Glasgow; The Doctrine of Christian Charity applied to the Case of Religious Difference; The Two Great Instruments appointed for the Propagation of the Gospel; Speech delivered in the General Assembly respecting the Bill for augmenting the Stipends of the Clergy of Scotland ; Thoughts on Universal Peace; and various tracts and other pieces, political and religious. Although many of his productions are highly honourable to the talents of Dr. Chalmers, his reputation principally rests on his pulpit eloquence, which is remarkable for the power with which it appeals to the feelings, and convinces the judgment of his auditors.

FRANCIS ATTERBURY, BISHOP OF

ROCHESTER. FRANCIS, son of Lewis Atterbury, a time-serving divine, was born at Milton-Keynes, near Newport Pagnel, in 1662. After having greatly distinguished himself at Westminster school, he was elected to a studentship, at Christchurch, Oxford, where he soon became conspicuous for classical attainments and poetical abilities. In 1684, he took the degree of B. A.; and, in 1687, that of M. A. During the latter year, he published his first work, entitled, Considerations on the Spirit of Martin Luther, &c.; and it is suspected that, about the same time, he assisted his pupil, Boyle, in the controversy with Bentley, relative to the Epistles of Phalaris. Disgusted with a college life, and feeling himself, as he stated, "made for another scene, and another sort of conversation," he adopted the advice of his worldly-minded father, (who had advised him to form a matrimonial alliance, which might better his prospects,) and married a relative of the Duke of Leeds, named Osborne, who possessed a fortune of 7,0001.

In 1691, he entered into holy orders; and, two years afterwards, became chaplain in ordinary to the king and queen, preacher at Bridewell, and lecturer at Št. Bride's. The spirit and elegance of his discourses sbon rendered him popular; while the tendency of his opinions to high-church doctrines, exposed him to the attacks of Hoadly and others, with whom he willingly entered into a controversy. In 1700, he commenced a dispute with Dr. Wake, on the rights, powers, and privileges of convocations, in which he supported the principles of his ecclesiastical party, with such zeal and dexterity, although with little Christian charity or candour, that, at its conclusion, four years afterwards, he received the solemn thanks of the lower house of convocation, and the degree of D. D.; although he was not then of sufficient standing in the university to have obtained it in the regular course.

On the accession of Queen Anne, he became chaplain in ordinary to her majesty; and, two years afterwards, Dean of Carlisle. In 1705, appeared a pamphlet, entitled, The Christian Religion, as professed by a Daughter of the Church of England; of which he was suspected, and accused by Lord Stanhope, of being the author. In 1707 he was made a canon of Exeter cathedral; and, in 1709, preacher at the Rolls chapel. He engaged in another controversy with Hoadly, on the doctrine of passive obedience; and aided materially in the defence of Sacheverell, for whom he is stated to have become bail. At this time, he was prolocutor to the lower house of convocation; and, as it is alleged, wrote, and privately circulated, a work, which was deemed too grossly violent to be presented to the queen, entitled, Ă Representation of the present State of Religion. In 1712, he was made Dean of Christchurch; and, in the following year, by the recommendation of 'Lord Oxford, Bishop of Rochester, and Dean of Westminster.

On the death of Queen Anne, it is asserted that he offered, with a sufficient guard, to proclaim the Pretender in full canonicals. George the First, who was, doubtless, aware of his political sentiments, treated him with marked coolness; and Atterbury evinced his disaffection towards the new monarch, by refusing to sign the loyal declaration of the bishops, during the rebellion, in 1715; and suspended a clergyman in his diocese, (Gibbin, curate of Gravesend) for allowing the performance of divine service in his church to the Dutch troops, who had been brought over to act against the insurgents. At length, he engaged in a correspondence with the Pretender's friends, for which he was committed to the Tower, in August, 1722, and, in the following March, a bill of pains and penalties was brought forward against him. He defended himself with great eloquence, but contemptible hypocrisy; meekly, but steadfastly, denying his guilt, which has since been established on authenticated documentary evidence. The bill, although vehemently opposed by many of the peers of Atterbury's party, who declared it to be grossly unconstitutional, was passed into a law; and, by its operation, the bishop was stripped of his benefices, exiled for life, and deprived of the society of British subjects residing abroad; they being forbidden to visit him, without permission under the king's sign manual, which, however, was not withheld from any of his relatives.

In June, 1723, he proceeded, with his favourite daughter, Mrs. Morice, to Brussels; and, soon afterwards, fixed his residence at Paris, where he amused himself

, chiefly, during the remainder of his life, in corresponding with eminent men of letters. But his love of political intrigue, appears to have never subsided. While pretending to be wholly devoted to the enjoyments of literature, and affecting, even in his correspondence with Pope, to be a friend to the constitution as it then existed, he was secretly contributing, as a collection of letters, published at Edinburgh

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