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headed by Fox and Lord Grenville, succeeded. The new ministers found in Canning a most virulent, active, and determined opponent. He ridiculed them, with great wit but more gall, in print, and fiercely assailed them with all his oratorical powers in parliament. He opposed some of their measures which were consonant to his own political sentiments; and lent but a cold support to the bill for abolishing the slave trade, (which he had previously advocated with great zeal,) because it was brought forward as a ministerial' measure. Night after night was Fox, although nearly in a dying state, compelled to attend in his place, for the purpose of replying to the arguments, or repelling the sarcasms of his ardent and resolute antagonist. On the death of that eminent man, Canning made some observations in parliament, derogatory to his character, for which he was most severely censured: and on the downfall of the Grenvilles, he exulted over them in some poetical effusions, which, says one of his biographers," reflect indelible disgrace upon the statesman and the man: they are utterly unworthy of his splendid talents, and cast a deep and withering shade over his integrity.”

Canning joined the no-popery party, which succeeded the Grenvilles in office, although it was known that his opinions were strongly in favour of catholic emancipation. He had now to encounter a series of terrible attacks from those whom he had opposed and lampooned while in power; but he stood his ground with great resolution, defending himself with admirable dexterity, and returning to every assailant a Roland for his Oliver. One of his anonymous adversaries, at this period, alludes to him in the following terms :-“It is only his public situation which entitles or induces me to say so much about him. He is a fly in amber: nobody cares about the fly; the only question is, how the devil did it get there? Nor do I attack him from the love of glory, but from the love of utility, as a burgomaster hunts a rat in a Dutch dyke, for fear it should flood a province."

In 1809, a quarrel with Lord Castlereagh led to the resignation of Canning, as well as that of his noble colleague. It appears that Canning had secretly, under a threat of resigning his own post in case of refusal, procured from the senior members of the administration a promise, that Lord Castlereagh should be persuaded to accept some other office, in exchange for the war department, over which Canning felt satisfied that his lordship was not competent to preside. By a breach of confidence, Castlereagh became acquainted with this fact, and he thought proper to require satisfaction for the deceit which his colleague had practised towards him, in endeavouring clandestinely to procure his removal. Canning offered neither apology nor explanation, which, indeed, his lordship did not appear desirous of obtaining, and a duel took place between them at Putney, on Thursday, the 21st of September, 1809. The parties fired once without effect; but at the second exchange of shots, Lord Castlereagh's ball passed through his adversa. ry's thigh. Canning still remained erect, and a third discharge would have taken place, had not the seconds perceived that he was severely wounded; they immediately interfered, and left the ground with their respective principals, without having effected an amicable arrangement. Sheridan observed of Lord Castlereagh, in allusion to this affair: “He is a perfect Irishman, even in his quarrels, for he does not appear to be a whit more satisfied now that he has received satisfaction, than he was before.”

When, in consequence of the insanity of the king, who had always been decidedly hostile to the claims of the catholics, the Prince of Wales became regent, Canning openly and unequivocally declared himself an advocate of concession; but he deprecated any discussion on the subject at that period, as it might probably close the door of hope for ever, to those whom it was intended to assist. “I wish the ques. tion at rest,” said he, in his speech on Lord Morpeth's motion, in 1812, “not in the way of victory, but of conciliation; not so as to attack the honest prejudices of protestants, but so as to remove them. The time will come, and I trust at no great distance, when mutual moderation and reflection will produce general concurrence.” Shortly afterwards, in a debate on the state of the nation, he spoke with equal eloquence and greater warmth on the same subject. He had, he said, on a former night, opposed the motion, concerning the catholic claims, because it involved a censure of ministers, and because he did not think the mode of bringing it forward very well chosen. in 1816, to enter into an explanation in defence of his conduct. He declared thai the appointment was incidentally cast upon him, after he had made private arrangements to proceed to Portugal, for the benefit of his son's health; and that he had resigned the moment he found the Prince Regent of Portugal was not likely to revisit Europe. “Of the seventeen months," said he, “which I passed in Lisbon, during the last six I was as private an individual as any among you. I sent home my resignation in April, 1815, and it was no fault of mine that I was not sooner superseded.

Now, however,”, continued he, "'the matter is changed, and I look upon it as a most serious question, when it is considered that we have heard from two ministers, this night, that the doors are to be shut for ever against the catholic claims.” He concluded his speech by insisting that the subject ought decidedly to be taken up as a ministerial measure. the assassination of Perceval he refused a share in the administration, because he understood that no change of opinion had taken place in the cabinet, with regard to emancipation. Shortly afterwards he brought forward a motion, which was carried by a majority of one hundred and twenty-nine, that the house would, early in the next session, take into its most serious consideration the state of the law affecting the catholics; and subsequently again declined an invitation to accept office, ministers being still averse to concession.

In 1812, after a severe contest, he procured his return for Liverpool. The next great public event in his life, was his appointment as ambassador to Lisbon, where there was neither court nor sovereign, at the enormous salary of 14,0001. per annum. For accepting this situation, he was so severely censured, as to be compelled, during the election at Liverpool,


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Early in 1816, having been reconciled to Castlereagh, he was induced to go into office as president of the board of control, and supported the celebrated six acts so strenuously, that he was assailed with more virulence than he had been at any former period of his life. The levity with which he spoke of “the revered and ruptured Ogden,” (to use an expression for which he has been justly censured,) whose case was brought forward, as an individual who had suffered by the suspension of the habeas corpus act, one of the celebrated six acts, exposed him to many severe attacks. “His language, on this occasion, was denounced,” says his biographer, “in an anonymous pamphlet, generally ascribed to Mr. Hobhouse, as a monstrous outrage on the audience it insulted.”' The writer concluded his work with the following passage:-“If ever you accuse me of treason, throw me into prison, make your gaolers load me with chains, and then jest at my sufferings, I will put you to death !" Although Mr. Hobhouse denied that he was the author of this pamphlet, Canning appears, for years afterwards, to have entertained some ill-will towards him. On one occasion, he even ventured to allude to the two members for Westminster, as "the honorable baronet and his man !"

At the latter end of March, Canning was bereft of his eldest son, a youth of nineteen, on whose monu.

ment the afflicted father thus recorded his own grief, and the virtues of him who had so lately been his pride.

Though short thy span, God's unimpeach'd decrees.
Which made that shorten'd span one long disease,
Yet, merciful in chastening, gave thee scope
For mild, redeeming virtues, faith and hope;
Meek resignation; pious charity :
And, since this world is not a world for thee,
Far from thy path removed, with partial care,
Strife, glory, gain, and pleasure's flowery snare;
Bade earth's temptations pass thee harmless by,
And fix'd on heaven thine unreverted eye!

Oh! mark'd from birth, and nurtured for the skies!
In youth, with more than learning's wisdom wise!
As sainted martyrs, patient to endure!
Simple as unwean'd infancy, and pure!
Pure from all stain (save that of human clay,
Which Christ's atoning blood hath wash'd away!)
By mortal sufferings now no more oppress'd,
Mount, sinless spirit, to thy destined rest!
While I, reversed our nature's kindlier doom,
Pour forth a father's sorrows on thy tomb.

In the month of June, in the same year, Queen Caroline returned to this country; and Canning, who was averse to taking any share in the proceedings that were meditated against her majesty, tendered his resignation, which the king declined accepting; at the same time, however, permitting Canning to abstain, as much as he thought fit, from the expected discussions on the queen's conduct. Canning accordingly proceeded to the continent, where he remained during the progress of the bill of pains and penalties. On his return he again tendered his resignation, which, on this occasion, to use his own language, was as most graciously accepted, as it had been in the former instance most indulgently declined.

In 1822 he was appointed governor-general of India; but soon afterwards accepted the foreign secretaryship, which had become vacant by the self-destruction of the Marquess of Londonderry, while Canning was preparing to depart from England. In July, 1823, he was stigmatized, by Mr. Brougham, as having exhi

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