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direction of the arsenal at Port Mahon, on the reduce tion of the island of Minorca. After other services, he was, on the 23d of April, 1804, made rear-ádmiral of the blue; and, on the 19th of May succeeding, was created a baronet. In April, 1808, he was advanced to be a vice-admiral; on the 4th of June, 1814, he was appointed admiral of the blue; and, on the demise of George the Fourth, held the same rank in the white squadron. In 1818, he was returned to parliament for Ilchester, and represented that place until the
year 1826. He was married on the 3d of April, 1811, to Elizabeth Browne, only child of William Greenly, of Titley Court, Herefordshire, Esq.
ROBERT, LORD CLIVE.
ROBERT, the second son of Richard Clive, a lawyer, was born in Shropshire, on the 24th of February 1725. He was sent, first, to a school at Lostock, in Cheshire ; thence, to another at Market Drayton; thirdly, to Merchant Tailors'; and, finally, to a private academy, at Hemel Hempstead. In his hoy hood and youth, he appears to have displayed a daring, turbulent disposition, and an unconquerable aversion to study. In 1743, he obtained an appointment as writer to the East India Company; and, in the following year, proceeded to Madras ; where he applied himself with some diligence to the acquirement of Latin, but still evinced a haughty recklessness of spirit, which frequently exposed him to censure and disgrace. On one occasion, he was compelled, by the governor, to apologize, for some contumelious behaviour to a secretary ; who, to show, perhaps, that the offence was entirely forgotten, invited the young
cadet to his table. “No, sir,” replied Clive, “I was not commanded to dine with you."
In 1746, Madras surrendered to the French; but circumstances soon occurred which justified the Eng
lish, it is said, in breaking their parole; and Clive, disguised as a Moor, escaped to St. David's. At this place, he gave a strong proof of his inflexible resolution. Two ensigns having been detected in a combination to cheat Clive and some other persons, at a card party, the losers, for some time, objected to hand over the stakes; but at length, all of them were bullied into compliance, with the exception of Clive, who, persisting in his refusal, was challenged by one of the gamblers. He cheerfully gave his antagonist a meeting; at which it was agreed that both parties should discharge together. Clive, accordingly, fired on the signal being given; but the reprobate ensign, treacherously reserved his shot, and quitting his ground, presented the pistol to Clive's head, and commanded him to ask for his life. After some hesitation, Clive complied; but the ensign still threatened to blow out his brains, if he did not immediately recant what he had said at the card table, and promise to pay
his share of the loss. “Fire, and be d-d, then!" said Clive; “I said you cheated, I say so still, and I never will pay you." The ensign called him a madman, and threw away his pistol. When subsequently complimented for his behaviour on this occasion, Clive said, “The man has given me my life, and I have no right, in future, to mention his behaviour at the card table; but I never will pay him, or keep him company."
Disgusted with the inactivity of the civil service, Clive, in 1747, obtained an ensigncy, and distinguished bimself at the siege of Pondicherry. An officer having, about this time, cast some reflections on his courage,
Clive demanded an explanation ; but, in return, received a blow on the ear. The officer refused to accept a challenge, and on patiently submitting to the insult of having Clive's cane laid on his head, was dismissed the service. At Devi Cotah, a fort of the Rajah of Tanjore, Clive, then a lieutenant, obtained permission (though it was not his turn) to lead the forlorn hope, of which, only three individuals besides himself, escaped with life, and the reduction of the fort was in a great measure attributed to his valour.
At the close of the war, he was admitted to the same rank in the civil service that he would have attained had he not abandoned it; and, through the friendship of Major Lawrence, who had commanded at Devi Cotah, he received the lucrative appointment of commissary-general. The fatigues he had suffered brought on a nervous fever; which, however, his strong constitution enabled him to overcome; and when war broke out again, in 1751, he proceeded, with the rank of captain, to the attack of Arcot. The garrison, panic-struck with an account they had received of the British army being seen marching with great unconcern, through a violent storm of thunder and lightning, surrendered the fort without resistance. By his humanity, and honourable treatment of their
property, he conciliated the natives, and gained from them important intelligence of the enemy's designs.
The French attempted to retake the fort. It was a mile in circumference: the works were in ruin; two breaches, (one thirty yards in extent,) were made in the wall; the garrison was reduced from five hundred to two hundred men; three serjeants, and his lieutenant, were killed by the side of Clive; who, however, at the end of seven weeks, compelled the French to abandon the siege; and, on receiving a reinforcement, gallantly engaged, and totally defeated them. After assisting to raise the siege of Trinchinopoly, he returned to England, in 1753; when, as an acknowledgment of his meritorious services, an elegant diamond-hilted sword, of the value of 7001., was voted to him by the East India Company; which, however, he would not accept, until a similar honour had been conferred on his friend, Major Lawrence, on whom he subsequently settled 5001. a year.
Being appointed governor of Fort St. David's, he
soon embarked again for India; and, in conjunction with Admiral Watson, took the stronghold of the pirate Angria. He increased his reputation, in 1756, at the capture of Calcutta; and, in the following year, attacked the Nabob of Bengal, with only seven hundred Europeans, and compelled him to enter into a treaty that was highly advantageous to the company. He soon afterwards took the French settlement of Chandenagore, notwithstanding the interposition of Surajah Dowlah; who, threatening to re-enact the atrocities of which he had been guilty at Calcutta, where he had suffocated many of his prisoners in the notorious black hole, and evincing, in other respects, a virulent animosity against the British, Clive, feeling that the company's power in India could never be secure, until this barbarous potentate was rendered harmless, either by force or stratagem, determined on deposing him. With this view, he opened a communication with Meer Jaffier, one of the nabob's officers, who having been deeply offended by his master, cheerfully agreed to assist in dethroning the nabob, with whose dignities it was agreed, that he should, in return for his services, be invested. A Gentoo merchant, named Omichund, was employed to conduct the correspondence: his recompense had already been stipulated; but, when the negotiation was so far advanced, that Watts, the British resident at the nabob's capital, who had borne a share in it, as well as Meer Jaffier, were completely in his power, the rapacious traitor'insisted on an enormous additional sum being effectually secured to him. He, however, had to deal with a man, who, in such a transaction, felt no scruples at defeating villany by fraud. Clive caused two treaties to be drawn up between Meer Jaffier and the English agents, in one of which the exorbitant demand of Omichund was guaranteed, while, in the other, it was totally omitted. The former only being shown to Omichund, he duly performed the part that was allotted to him in this iniquitous scheme, which
being discountenanced by Admiral Watson, his signa ture to the fictitious treaty, was, it is said, forged.
Mean while, the nabob having obtained information of the plot, frustrated it, for a time, by compelling Meer Jaffier to swear fidelity to him, and join his army against the British. Clive, being ignorant of this proceeding, marched towards the nabob's capital, expecting, hourly, to be joined by the traitor. "The battle of Plassey ensued, in which, partly by Clive's skill, and the bravery of his troops, but materially on account of the terror with which the enemy regarded the British, and principally, perhaps, through the villany of Meer Jaffier, the nabob's enormous army was routed with great slaughter, and his power effectually crushed.
Meer Jaffier now became nabob, and presented Clive with 210,0001., for originating, and carrying into effect, the conspiracy against Surajah Dowlah. The 'merchant Omichund, then confidently applied for his expected reward, but was informed that he had nothing to receive, the treaty which he had seen having been framed expressly to cheat him. This information drove him mad, and he continued in a state of idiocy up to the day of his death, which took place about eighteen months afterwards.' Clive sup pressed two rebellions against the new nabob, but artfully made terms with a third competitor for Surajah Dowlah’s dignity, with a view to prevent his own puppet, Meer Jaffier, from growing too independent of the British.
For his valuable services to the company, Clive was appointed governor of Calcutta; and, after having forced the great mogul's son to raise the siege of Patna, attacked and defeated a Dutch force, which had reached Bengal, for the purpose, as it was alleged, of reinforcing the garrisons of the Dutch company in India; but, as Clive suspected, by the invitation of the nabob, to emancipate him from the yoke of the English. On this occasion, the Dutch were so utterly