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proprietor, were unemployed, they still received full wages, and the amount thus expended was 7000.. On being asked by a committee of parliament“ upon what principle he recommended this measure ?” he replied, “ upon the principle of preventing crime and its consequent misery ; because if the poor cannot procure employment, and are not supported, they must commit crime or starve; and I have always considered that 70001. to have been more lvantageously expended than any other part of our capital.
LORD EDWARD FITZGERALD, fifth son of the first Duke of Leinster, and grandson of Charles, second Duke of Richmond, was born on the 15th of October, 1763. After the death of his father, he went to reside with his mother and her second husband, Mr. William Ogilvie, under whose superintendence his education was directed, chiefly towards military pursuits, for which he has evinced an early predilection. In 1779, he returned to England, and having entered the army, sailed to America, where he became aid-de-camp to Lord Rawdon, and greatly distinguished himself by his intrepidity and courage. During this campaign, he gave many proofs of valour amounting to rashness and was, on one occasion, left insensible in the field, at Eutaw Springs, severely wounded in the thigh; in which state he was found by a poor negro, who nursed him in his hut, till he recovered. In 1783, he was on General O'Hara's staff at St. Lucia. Returning to his native country, he entered the Irish house of commons; but he found a parliamentary life, he said, so insipid, that, but for his mother, he believed he should have joined the Turks or Russians. In 1786, he entered himself a student of the Military Academy at Woolwich; and, at the termination of his parliamentary career, proceeded on a tour to the continent, on his return from whence, an attachment he had previously formed, having become hopeless induced him to join his regiment in America, where, according to Mr. Moore, he imbibed those republican notions which, ultimately, proved so disastrous to him. Through his instrumentality, the celebrated William Cobbett, then a sergeant-major in his regiment, was discharged, who spoke of him as “a most humane and excellent man, and the only real honest officer he ever knew in the army.” Having determined on returning to England, he made several journeys through unvisited tracts of country on his way thither, and arrived at home in 1790, when he learned that the lady to whom he had been attached was married to another. At this time, his uncle, the Duke of Richmond, being in office, he was, through his recommendation, appointed to lead the enterprise, then in contemplation, against Cadiz, on his promise that he would not appear in the Irish parliament in opposition to government. Being returned, however, to parliament, by the Duke of Leinster, he was accused, by the Duke of Richmond, of breaking his word, and a rupture took place between them, which ended in his losing the appointment. During the progress of the French revolution, in 1792, he visited Paris, and became intimate with Paine, of whom he wrote in terms of admiration and enthusiasm, and desired his mother to address him as “Le Citoyen Edward Fitzgerald.” Shortly afterwards, he assisted at a dinner, given by the English in Paris, in honour of the successes of the French armies, at which meeting he publicly renounced his titles, and expressed his republican principles in such a manner, that he was, without inquiry, dismissed the British army. Whilst in France, he married Pamela, the adopted daughter of Madame de Genlis, and the reputed child of Philippe Egalité ; shortly after which, he proceeded to Dublin, "where,” says Mr. Moore, he plunged at once into the polítical atmosphere,'himself, more than sufficiently excited." Here he joined the society called The United Irishmen; and also attached himself to an armed association, under the name of the first national battalion ; which the viceroy having issued a proclamation to put down, an address, approving of the measure, was proposed in parliament, when Lord Edward exclaimed: "I give my most hearty disapprobation to that address; for I do think, that the lord-lieutenant, and the majority of this house, are the worst subjects the king has." " Take down his words," was immediately echoed from all parts of the house; "and being,” says Mr. Moore, “permitted to explain, he did so with some humour, by repeating what he had before declared, adding, 'I am sorry for it;' which apology, after a debate, next day, of two hours' long, was accepted.” At this period, treasonable associations were being organized over the whole of Ireland, and were defended by Lord Edward in parliament, who, some time afterwards, went to Paris to treat with the French directory on behalf of the conspirators. On his return to Ireland, he was suspected by the government, but he, nevertheless, continued his secret measures against it, till at length a warrant was issued for his apprehension, together with the other leaders of the conspiracy. He was, however, previously to his capture, afforded many opportunities of escape, of all of which he refused to avail himself, saying: "It is now out of the question; I am too deeply pledged to these men to be able to withdraw with honour.” A thousand pounds was then offered for his apprehension; and information having, at length, been obtained of his retreat, he was secured, after a desperate struggle with his assailants, in which he killed Major Ryan, and was himself much wounded. On being lodged in prison, he was treated with great care and attention, and every exertion was made to procure his pardon, by his friends and relatives, who, it is said, were assisted in their endeavours by the Prince of Wales. During his cap
tivity, his illness increased to such a degree, that he occasionally became delirious, but towards its termination, he grew calm and composed, and died, with perfect resignation, on the 3d of June, 1798. Mr. Moore represents Lord Edward as the hero and the martyr of a good cause; and dedicates his biography to a lady, as the memoirs of her illustrious relative. He says, that the concession, late, but effectual, of those measures of emancipation and reform, which it was the first object of Lord Edward and his brave associates to obtain, has set a seal upon the general justice of them, which no power of courts or countries can ever do away. Lord Edward Fitzgerald possessed considerable mental powers and great personal bravery, but wanted that prudent command over his passions necessary to form a great civil, military, or political character. Being himself the slave of his own ardent impulses, they were capable of being so excited and worked upon as to render him the tool of others. General Sir John Doyle wrote of him: "Of my lamented and ill-fated friend's excellent qualities I should never tire in speaking. His frank and open manner, his universal benevolence, his gaiete de coeur, his valour almost chivalrous, and, above all, his unassurning tone, made him the idol of all who served with him. His affection for his family, and particularly for his mother, formed the most amiable point in his character, and his letters to her are full of the tenderest expressions of love and duty." His widow retired to Hamburgh, and married a second time in less than two years after his decease. The attainder was removed from his name some time afterwards.
ADMIRAL SIR ISAAC COFFIN. Sır Isaac COFFIN, was born on the 16th of May, 1759; and entered the service at the age of fourteen
years, in the Gaspée brig, on the American station. In 1778, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and appointed commander of the Placentia cutter, and was afterwards wrecked, in Le Penson, on the coast of Labrador. In November, 1779, he was nominated to the Adamant; and, in the succeeding year, convoyed a fleet of merchantmen to New York. Hé was next employed on the American coast; and, while at Halifax, in July, 1781, was advanced to the rank of commander. He was then, successively, appointed to the Avenger and Pachabunter; and being present in the latter during the fire at the town of St. John's, made such great exertions to extinguish the flames, that he was voted an address of thanks by the house of assembly, About 1789, whilst in command of the Thisbe, on the Halifax station, he was brought to a court-martial, for returning a false muster of his ship's company; a practice then in use, enabling young officers to serve their time at school or at home, without submitting themselves to the usual routine of a naval education. For this he was, in the first instance, dismissed from the command of his ship; but the matter coming under purview of the admiralty board, his name was altogether erased from the list of naval officers. Irritated at such treatment, he entered into the service of the Brabant patriots; but the proceedings of Earl Howe, and the other lords of the admiralty, having been declared illegal by the judges, he was reinstated in the king's service, as a post-captain. In the year 1790, he was commissioned to the Alligator, of twenty-eight guns: and, while lying at the Nore, he ruptured himself
, by leaping into the water to save the life of a man who had fallen overboard. A similar accident occurred to him in 1793; and, on his recovery, he was intrusted with the regulation service at Leith; from October, 1795, to October, 1796, he was resident commissioner at Corsica ; and, for two years after, he superintended the naval establishment at Lisbon. In 1798, he was intrusted with the