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portant services, he returned with a new charter, May 14, 1692. During the witchcraft delusion, he opposed the violent measures which were adopted.

He wrote a book to prove that the devil might appear in the shape of an innocent man, by means of which a number of persons, convicted of witchcraft, escaped the execution of the sentence. After the death of Mr. Oakes, in 1681, the care of Harvard college devolved upon him, and over which he presided until September 6, 1701, when he resigned in consequence of an act of the general court, requiring the president to reside at Cambridge. He was unwilling to leave his church, though his son, Dr. Cotton Mather, had been settled as his colleague for several years.

He was called the father of the New England clergy, and his name and character were held in high veneration, not only by those who knew him, but by succeeding generations.

After a long life of benevolent exertion, he died in Boston, August 23, 1723, in the eighty-fifth year of

He was a man of great learning, and of extensive influence. Sixteen hours every day were commonly spent in his study. Soon after his return from England, he procured an act, authorizing the college to create bachelors and doctors of theology; which power was not given by its former charter. As a president, he was careful not only to give the students direction in their literary pursuits, but also impart to them with the affection of a parent, the importance of renouncing sin, and embracing the gospel of Christ. Such was his benevolence, that he devoted a tenth part of all his income to charitable purposes.

His theological and philosophical publications amount to the number of eighty-five. Among which are the following : “ History of the War with the Indians,” 1676; “Cometographia, or a Discourse concerning Comets,” 1683; «The Doctrine of Divine

his age.

Providence," 1684; “De Successu Evangelii upud lados," 1688; “On the future Conversion of the Jews, confuting Dr. Lightfoot and Mr. Baxter, 1709; “Diatribe de Signo Filii Hominis, et de secundo Messiæ adventu;' and “ Elijah's Mantle,” 1722.


COTTON MATHER, D. D., F.R.S., an eminent divine and philosopher, was born in Boston, February 12, 1663. He was distinguished for early piety, and at the age of fourteen, he strictly kept days of secret fasting and prayer. At the age of fifteen he graduated at Harvard college, having made uncommon proficiency in his studies. At this early period of his life he drew up systems of the sciences, and wrote remarks upon the books which he read, and thus matured his understanding. At the age of seventeen he approached the Lord's table, with affectionate reliance upon Jesus Christ for salvation. Having been occupied for some time in the study of theology, he was ordained minister of the North church in Boston, as colleague with his father, Dr. Increase Mather, May 13, 1684. Here he passed his days, unwearied and unceasing in his exertions to promote the glory of his Maker, and the highest welfare of his brethren. He died in the assurance of Christian faith, February 13, 1728, aged sixty-five years.

Dr. Mather was a man of unequalled industry, of vast learning, of unfeigned piety, and of most disinterested and expansive benevolence. He was also distinguished for his credulity and his pedantry. No person in America had so large a library, or had read so many books, or retained so much of what he read. So precious did he consider time, that to prevent visits of unnecessary length, he wrote over his study-door in capital letters, “ be short.” His social talents and his various knowledge, rendered his conversation in

eresting and instructive. Every morning he usually read a chapter of the Old Testament in Hebrew, and another in the French, and a chapter of the New Testament in Greek. Besides the French, he understood also the Spanish and Iroquois, and in these languages he published treatises.

He was a most voluminous writer; his works amount to three hundred and eighty-two. As he published his works of piety, he put them into the hands of persons to whom he thought they would be useful ; and he received the benedictions of many dying believers, who spoke of his labours as the means of their salvation.

Among the works best known, are his “ Magnalia Christi Americana,” two volumes octavo, new edition.

Essays to do Good." Dr. Franklin ascribed all his usefulness in the world to his reading this book in early life. It has been reprinted in England and America a number of times. Christian Philosopher," 1721; “Life of Increase Mather;" “ Ratio disciplina Fratrum,” Nov.

Anglorum ;" “ Biblia Americana.” This learned work, which it was once proposed to publish in three folio volumes, is now in the library of the Massachusetts historical society.

His literary distinctions were chiefly from abroad. The university of Glasgow presented him with a diploma of doctor of divinity; and his name is on the list of the fellows of the royal society in London.



DANIEL Boone, the first settler of the state of Kentucky, was born in Berks county, Pennsylvania, about the year 1730. At the age of eighteen, he left his native place, and settled in the state of North Carolina. În company with five other individuals, he left that province in 1769, and journeyed as far as the Kentucky river, with a view of settling near it. He

settled within seventy-five miles of the present town of Frankfort, where he built a stockade fort, a precaution absolutely necessary, to defend himself from the attack of the native Indians. This fort was afterwards called fort Boonsborough; and thus was formed the first settlement of the state of Kentucky.

In the year 1775, he conducted his wife and daughters to his new establishment, and was soon after joined by other families. At first he had to contend with a savage foe, and after several bloody rencontres, in one of which he was taken prisoner; and after enduring sufferings and hardships, which his courage and constancy surmounted, till he had an opportunity of making peace with his enemies. From this time until the year 1799, he spent his life in agricultural pursuits, and served occasionally his countrymen in the Legislature of Virginia.

Mr. Boone was not, however, to end his days amid the advantages of social life. After his courage and constancy, under the severest trials ; after his long and unremitting labours, in perfecting his infant settlement; after rearing and providing for a numerous family, the prop of his old age, and the pride of his hoary years, which now entitled him to a civic crown, and to the gratitude of a generous people he suddenly finds that he is possessed of nothing; that his eyes must be closed without a home, and that he must be an outcast in his gray hairs. His heart is torn, his feelings are lacerated by the chicanery of the law, which deprives him of the land of which he was the first to put a spade in, his goods sold: cut to the soul, with a wounded spirit, he still showed himself an extraordinary and eccentric man. He left for ever the state, in which he had been the first to introduce a civilized population-where he had so boldly maintained himself against external attacks, and shown himself an industrious and exemplary citizen; where he found no white man when he sat himself down amid the ancient woods, and left behind half a million.

He forsook it for ever; no entreaty could keep him within its bounds. Man, from whom he had deserved every thing, had persecuted and robbed him of all. Je bade his friends and his family adieu for ever. He took with him his rifle and a few necessaries, and crossing the Ohio, pursued his way into the unknown and immense country of the Missouri, where the monstrous mammoth is even now supposed to be in existence. In 1800 he discovered the Boone's lick country, which now forms one of the best settlements of that state.

On the banks of the Grand Osage, in company with his son, he reared his rude log hut-around which he planted a few esculent vegetables—and his principal food, he obtained by hunting. An exploring traveller, sometimes crossing the way of this singular man, would find him seated at the door of his hut, with his rifle across his knees, and his faithful dog at his side; surveying his shrivelled limbs, and lamenting that his youth and manhood were gone, but hoping his legs would serve him to the last of life, to carry him to spots frequented by the

might not starve. In his solitude he would sometimes speak of his past actions, and of his indefatigable labours, with a glow of delight on his countenance, that indicated how dear they were to his heart, and would then become at once silent and dejected. Thus he passed through life till he had reached the age of ninety, when death suddenly terminated his earthly recollections of the ingratitude of his fellow-creatures, at a period when his faculties, though he had attained such an age, were not greatly impaired, September 26, 1820.

Colonel Boone was a man of common stature, of great enterprise, strong intellect, amiable disposition, and inviolable integrity.

As a token of respect and regard for him, both houses of the General Assembly of the state of Missouri, upon information of his death being communicated

game, that

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