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PHILIP SCHUYLER, a major-general in the revolu tionary war, received his appointment from Congress, June 19, 1775. He was directed to proceed immediately from New York to Ticonderoga, to, secure the lakes, and to make preparations for entering Canada. Being taken sick in September, the command devolved upon Montgomery. On his recovery he devoted himself zealously to the management of the affairs in the northern department. The superintendence of the Indian concerns claimed much of his attention.
On the approach of Burgoyne, 1777, he made every exertion to obstruct his progress; but the evacuation of Ticonderoga, by St. Clair, occasioning unreasonable jealousies in regard to Schuyler in New England, he was superseded by Gates in August, and Congress directed an inquiry to be made into his conduct. It was a matter of extreme chagrin to him to be recalled at the moment when he was about to take ground and face the enemy. He afterwards, though not in the regular service, rendered important services to his country in the military transactions of New York. He was a member of the old Congress, and when the present government of the United States commenced its operations in 1789, he was appointed with Rufus King a senator from his native state.
In 1797, he was again appointed a senator in the place of Aaron Burr. He died at Albany, November 18, 1804, in the seventy-third year of his age.
Distinguished by strength of intellect and upright intentions, he was wise in the contrivance, and enterprising and persevering in the execution of plans of public utility. In private life he was dignified, but courteous, a pleasing and instructive companion, affeetionate in his domestic relations, and just in all his dealings.
BENJAMIN LINCOLN, a major-general in the American army, was born in Hingham, Massachusetts, January 23d, 1733.
Having at an early period espoused the cause of his country as a firm and determined whig, he was elected a member of the provincial Congress, and one of the secretaries of that body, and also a member of the committee of correspondence.
In 1776, he was appointed by the council of Massachusetts a brigadier, and soon after a major-general of the militia.
In October, he marched with a body of militia and joined the main army at New York. In February, 1777, Congress appointed him a major-general in the regular service.
In July, 1777, General Washington selected him to join the northern army under the command of General Gates, to oppose the advance of General Burgoyne.
During the sanguinary conflict on the 7th of October, he received a wound, which badly fractured his leg, and was obliged to be taken off the field. He was not enabled to join the army, until the following August, when he was joyfully received by General Washington, who well knew how to appreciate his merit. It was from a development of his estimable character as a man, and his talent as a military commander, that he was designated by Congress for the arduous duties of the chief command in the southern department, under innumerable embarrassments.
On his arrival at Charleston, December, 1778, he found that he had to form an army, to provide supplies, and to arrange the various departments, that he might be able to cope with an enemy consisting of experienced officers and veteran troops.
On the 19th of June, 1779, he attacked the enemy, who were strongly posted at Stone Ferry, and after a hard fought action, he was obliged to retire.
The next event of importance which occurred, was the bold assault on Savannah, in conjunction with Count D'Estaing, and which proved unsuccessful. He then repaired to Charleston, and endeavoured to put that city in a posture of defence.
In March, 1780, Sir Henry Clinton appeared before that place, with a force not short of 9000 men. They commenced a heavy cannonade, and continued to besiege it, until the 12th May, when he was compelled to surrender. Notwithstanding fortune frowned on him, in most of his bold and daring enterprises, he still retained his popularity, and the confidence of the army, and was considered as a most zealous patriot, and the bravest of soldiers.
"Great praise is due to General Lincoln," says Dr. Ramsay, "for his judicious and spirited conduct in baffling for three months, the greatly superior force of Sir Henry Clinton and Admiral Arbuthnot. Though Charleston and the southern army were lost, yet by their long protracted defence, the British plans were not only retarded but deranged, and North Carolina was saved for the remainder of the year 80."
In the campaign of 1781, General Lincoln commanded a division under General Washington, and at the siege of Yorktown he had his full share of the honour of that brilliant and auspicious event. The articles of capitulation stipulated for the same honour in favour of the surrendering army, as had been granted to the garrison of Charleston. He was appointed to conduct them to the field where their arms were deposited, and receive the customary submission.
In October, 1781, he was chosen by Congress secretary at war, retaining his rank in the army. In this office he continued till October, 1783, when he resigned, and received a vote of thanks from Congress, for his fidelity and diligence in discharging the important trust.
He now retired to his farm. In 1786-7, he was appointed to the command of the troops, which suppressed the insurrection under Shays and Day.
In May, 1787, he was elected lieutenant-governor of the state of Massachusetts. He was a member of the convention for ratifying the federal constitution, and in the summer of 1789, he received from President Washington, the appointment of collector of the port of Boston. This office he sustained till being admonished by the increasing infirmities of his age, he requested permission to resign, about two years before his death. He closed his honourable and use ful life, on the 9th of May, 1810.
General Lincoln received from the university of Cambridge, the honorary degree of master of arts. He was one of the first members of the American academy of arts and sciences, and a member of the Massachusetts historical society. He was also president of the society of Cincinnati, from its first organization to the day of his decease.
WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE, a commodore in the United States navy, was born at Princeton, New Jersey, on the 7th May, 1774. At the age of sixteen he was placed in a counting-house in New York; but soon after he removed to Philadelphia, and entered into the merchant service. From the year 1793 to 1798, he commanded merchant ships in the trade from Philadelphia to Europe. In July, 1798, he was appointed to the command of the United States schooner Retaliation, of fourteen guns, with a commission as lieutenant and commander in the navy. In 1799, he received a commission of master-commandant, and sailed in the brig Norfolk, of eighteen guns, on a second cruise against the French. In 1800 he received a captain's commission, and was appointed to the command of the frigate George Washington, in which he afterwards sailed for the Mediterranean. On his return, in 1801, he was transferred to the frigate Essex, and appointed
to accompany the squadron which was sent against Tripoli. He returned to New York in 1802, and the next year was appointed to the command of the Philadelphia frigate. In July following, he sailed in her for the Mediterranean, and joined the squadron under Commodore Preble. In August, he captured two Tripolitan cruisers, and then proceeded to blockade the harbour of Tripoli. On the 31st of October, he gave chase to an armed ship, and finding he could not cut her out from the harbour, gave up the pursuit and hauled northward; but unfortunately ran upon rocks about four miles and a half from the town. The Tripolitan gunboats immediately attacked her, and after sustaining the enemy's fire between five and six hours, he was obliged to surrender the ship. The officers and crew were immediately put in confinement, nor were they released until the peace of the 3d of June, 1805.
Captain Bainbridge reached the United States in the autumn following, and the reception which he met from his country was such as to satisfy completely the feelings of a meritorious but unfortunate officer.
In 1806, he took command of the naval station at New York. In 1808, he was appointed to take command of the Portland station.
In 1809, having superintended the repairing of the frigate President at Washington, he took command of her, and cruised on our coast till the next spring, when he obtained a furlough, and permission from the navy department to engage in the merchant service.
Having returned from his mercantile pursuits, in February, 1812, he was appointed to the command of the navy yard at Charlestown, Massachusetts. On the declaration of war against Great Britain, he was appointed to command the frigate Constellation; but on the arrival at Boston of Captain Hull, after his victory over the British frigate Guerriere, Commodore Bainbridge was permitted to take command of the Constitution. In a few weeks he sailed on a cruise