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laurels were reserved for him at the siege of Yorktown. To the successful result of this memorable siege, no officer contributed more essentially than the commander of the artillery. His animated exertions, his military skill, his cool and determined bravery in this triumphant struggle, received the unanimous approbation of Congress, and he was immediately created major-general, with the concurrence of the commander-in-chief, and of the whole army. Having contributed so essentially to the successful termination of the war, he was next selected as one of the commissioners to adjust the terms of peace. He was deputed to receive the surrender of the city of New York, and soon after appointed to the command of West Point.

It was here that he was employed in the delicate and arduous duty of disbanding the army, and inducing a soldiery, disposed to turbulence by their privations and sufferings, to retire to domestic life, and resume the peaceful character of citizens.

The great objects of the war being accomplished, and peace restored to our country, General Knox was, early under the confederation, appointed secretary of war by Congress, in which office he was confirmed by President Washington, after the establishment of the federal government.

Having filled this office for eleven years, he obtained the reluctant consent of President Washington to retire.

Retired from the theatre of active life, he still felt a deep interest in the prosperity of his country. He was called repeatedly to take a share in the government of the state, to which he had removed, and in the discharge of whose several duties, he exhibited great wisdom and experience as a legislator. In the full vigour of health, he suddenly died at Montpelier, seat in Thomaston, Maine, on the 25th October, 18

The great qualities of General Knox were not mere! those of the hero and the statesman; with these wer combined those of the elegant scholar, and the accom.

plished gentleman. There have been those as brave and as learned, but rarely a union of such valour, with so much urbanity; a mind so great, yet so free from ostentation.

In his private virtues, he was no less the ornament of every circle in which he moved, as the amiable and enlightened companion, the generous friend, the man of feeling and benevolence. In consideration of his literary attainments, the president and trustees of Dartmouth college conferred on im the degree of doctor of law.


RICHARD MONTGOMERY, a major-general in the American army, was born about the year 1737. He possessed an excellent genius which was matured by a fine education.

Entering the army of Great Britain, he successfully fought her battles with Wolfe at Quebec, in 1759, and on the very spot where he was doomed to fall when fighting against her, under the banners of freedom. When our struggles with Great Britain commenced, he ardently espoused the cause of liberty, and was appointed by Congress to the command of the continental forces in the northern department.

In the fall of 1775, he marched into Canada, took forts Chamblee and St. John's, and on the 12th November he took Montreal. In December, he joined Arnold before Quebec, and on the 31st, made a general assault on the city. He bravely advanced at the head of his troops, but was killed at the onset. This event, no doubt, saved the city, and was the ultimate cause of preventing the whole province of Canada from falling into the hands of the Americans.

He was a man of great military talents, whose measures were taken with judgment, and executed with vigour.

By the direction of Congress, a monument cf white marble, of the most beautiful simplicity, with emblematical devices, was executed by Mr. Cassiers, at Paris, and is erected to his memory in front of St. Paul's church, New York.


WILLIAM MOULTRIE, governor of South Carolina, and a major-general in the American war, was devoted to the service of his country from an early period of his life.

He was among the foremost at the commencement of the late revolution to assert the liberties of his country, and braved every danger to redress her wrongs. His manly firmness, intrepid zeal, and cheerful exposure of every thing which he possessed, added weight to his counsels, and induced others to join him.

In 1776, for his brave defence of Sullivan's Island, he received the unanimous thanks of Congress.

In 1779, he gained a victory over the British in the battle near Beaufort.

In 1780, he was second in command in Charleston during the siege of that place.

He was repeatedly chosen governor of that state, till the infirmities of age induced him to withdraw to the peaceful retreat of domestic life. He died at Charleston, September 27, 1805, in the seventy-sixth year of his age.

He published memoirs of the American revolution, so far as it related to North and South Carolina, and Georgia, two volumes, octavo, 1802.



JOSEPH WARREN, a major-general in the American army, and a distinguished patriot, was born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, in the year 1741. At the age of fifteen he entered Harvard college, and received the honours of that seminary in 1759, and 1762. On leaving college he directed his attention to the study of medicine, and in a few years became one of the most eminent physicians in Boston. But he lived at a period, when greater objects claimed his attention, than those which related particularly to his profession. The calls of a distracted country were paramount to every consideration of his own interests; and he entered the vortex of politics, never to return to the peaceful course of professional labour.

The change in public opinion had been gradually preparing the minds of most men for a revolution. This was not openly avowed; amelioration of treatment for the present, and assurances of kindness in future, we all that the colonies asked from Great Britain; but these they did not receive.

The mother country mistook the spirit of her children, and used threats when kindness would have been the best policy. When Britain declared her right to direct, govern, and tax us in any form, and at all times, the colonies reasoned, remonstrated, and entreated for a while; and when these means did not answer, they defied and resisted. The political writers of the province had been active and busy, but they were generally screened by fictitious names, or sent their productions anonymously into the world; but the time ha arrived when speakers of nerve and boldness were wanted to raise their voices against oppression in every shape. Warren possessed first-rate qualities for an orator, and had early declared in the strongest terms his political sentiments, which were somewhat in advance of public opinion; for he held

as tyranny all taxation, which could be imposed by the British parliament upon the colonies.

His first object was to enlighten the people; and then he felt sure of engaging their feelings in the general cause. He knew when once they began, it would be impossible to tread back-independence only would satisfy the country.

He embraced every opportunity to assert and defend the most bold and undisguised principles of liberty, and defying in their very teeth the agents of the crown.

Twice he was elected to deliver the oration on the 5th of March, in commemoration of the massacre; and his orations are among the most distinguished productions by that splendid list of speakers who addressed their fellow-citizens on this subject, so interesting to them all. These occasions gave the orators a fine field for remark, and a fair opportunity for effect. The great orators of antiquity in their speeches attempted only to rouse the people to retain what they possessed. Invective, entreaty, and pride had their effect in assisting these mighty masters to influence the people. They were ashamed to lose what their fathers left them, won by their blood, and so long preserved by their wisdom, their virtues, and their courage. Our statesmen had a harder task to perform, for they were compelled to call on the people to gain what they had never enjoyed-an independent rank and standing among the nations of the world.

From the year 1768, he was a principal member of a secret meeting or caucus in Boston, which had great influence on the concerns of the country. With all his boldness, and decision, and zeal, he was circumspect and wise.

His next oration was delivered March 6, 1775. It was at his own solicitation that he was appointed to this duty a second time. This fact is illustrative of his character, and worthy of remembrance.

Some of the British officers of the army then in Boston, had publicly declared that it should be at the

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