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British ships made an attack upon fort Boroyer, eighteen milos below the head of Mobile bay, but was repulsed by the loss of one of their best ships and 230 men killed and wounded. General Jackson became more and more persuaded, that unless Pensacola should be reduced, it would be in vain to think of defending his district. He accordingly took up the line of march with the American army, and reached Pensacola on the 6th of November. He found on his arrival, the forts garrisoned by the British and Spaniards, and prepared for resistance. He forth with required a surrender of the several forts to be garrisoned and held by the United States, until Spain should furnish a force sufficient to protect the neutrality from the British. The governor peremptorily refused to accede to these
General Jackson immediately pushed forward to the attack, and after some carnage, he forced the governor and his advisers to a submission.
Two days after entering the town, General Jackson abandoned it, and returned to fort Montgomery, being satisfied with having driven away the British, forced the hostile Creeks to fly to the forests, and produced a salutary impression on the minds of the Spaniards.
He now proceeded to New Orleans, where he apprehended the most danger, and on the first December established his headquarters in that place.
Here he sounded the alarm of the approaching danger to his fellow-citizens; roused the Legislature to lend him their aid, and to prepare with all expedition for the coming foe.
Too soon, alas! was this foresight realized, to the consternation of the slumbering citizens.
On the 14th the British attacked the American flotilla on lake Borgne, and captured it, but not with, out a severe contest, and heavy loss of men.
On the 16th, he reviewed the militia, and haranged them with his usual eloquence.
Resistance on the lakes being at an end, the eneray had nothing to do but to advance.
On the 22d, the British were accidently discovered advancing from the swamp and woods, about seven miles below the town; when General Jackson, immediately on hearing of their approach, resolved to meet them. On the night of the 23d, about dusk, the Americans commenced the attack; the battle, complicated and fierce, continued for some time, until both parties were thrown into confusion, owing to the darkness of the night; the enemy withdrew from the field of battle about a mile. This action for boldness of conception, and by the wisdom of the policy and the importance of the result, does infinite credit to the American hero. As the enemy continued to receive hourly reinforcements, which now amounted to upwards of 6000 men, General Jackson drew off his troops, and resolved to act defensively until he should be reinforced. He placed his men behind an intrenchment, with a determination to resist to the last extremity. On the 28th, the British force, being further increased, and led on by their chief, Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Packenham, attempted to storm the American works, but were gallantly repulsed.
Skirmishes were kept up between the two armies, until the memorable eighth of January, when the enemy moved to the charge so unexpectedly, and with so much celerity, that the American soldiers at the outposts had scarcely time to fly in. The whole plain was one continued glare of lightning from the shower of rockets, bombs, and balls, poured in from the enemy. Two British divisions, headed by Sir Edward Packenham in person, in the mean time pressed forward. When they had arrived within a short distance of the intrenchments, the Americans discharged a volley of death into their ranks, and arrested their progress. Sir Edward fell, Generals Gibbs and Keene were wounded, and were carried off from the field, which by this time was strewed with the dead and dying. The British columns, often broken and driven back, were reneatedly formed, and urged forward anew. Convinced at last that nothing could be accomplished, they abandoned the contest, and a general and disorderly retreat ensued. The number of British engaged amounted to 14,000; their loss on this day amounted to nearly 3000, while that of the Americans was but thirteen killed! On the 18th they took their final leave, and embarked in their shipping for the West Indies. Thus ended the mighty invasion, in twentysix days after they exultingly placed their standard on the banks of the Mississippi. Thus triumphed General Jackson, by a wonderful combination of boldness and prudence; energy and adroitness; desperate fortitude, and anxious patriotism.
On his return to the city of New Orleans, he was hailed as her Deliverer! The most solemn and lively demonstrations of public respect and gratitude succeeded each other daily, until the period of his departure for Nashville; nor was the sensation throughout the Union less enthusiastic. Soon after the annunciation of the peace, concluded at Ghent, he retired to his farm, once more to enjoy its rural pleasures.
In January, 1818, General ackson was again called into active service to chastise a portion of the Seminole Indians, who instigated by British adventurers, had already appeared on our frontiers, and had committed the most unheard of massacres. In this critical state of affairs, with that zeal and promptness which have ever marked his career, after having first collected a body of Tennessee volunteers, repaired to the post assigned, and assumed the command. He immediately crossed the Spanish line, penetrated into the Seminole towns, and reduced them to ashes. He then pursued his march to St. Marks, and found large body of Indians and negroes collected. After ascertaining that they had been supplied with arms by the enemy, and that the Spanish storehouses were appropriated to their use, to store plundered goods from the Americans, General Jackson made no hesitation, after hearing a long list of other grievances, to demand a surrender of the post. A hesitation was made; when General Jackson, convinced of the necessity of rapid movements, took it by force, marched his forces to Suwany, seized upon the stores of the enemy, and burnt their villages.
Having thus far effected his objects, General Jackson considered the war at an end. St. Marks being garrisoned by an American force; the Indian towns destroyed; the two Indian chiefs, and the two foreign instigators, Arbuthnot and Armbrister, having been taken and executed, he ordered the troops to be discharged.
General Jackson returned to Nashville in June, 1818, to the beloved retirement of his farm. New acknowledgments, and new marks of admiration were bestowed upon him in every part of the Union.
On the meeting of Congress, General Jackson repaired to Washington, to explain the transactions of this last expedition, in person, and to defend himself from the imputation of an intention to violate the laws of his country, or the obligations of humanity. This he did in the most able manner. Whoever studies his ample and argumentative despatches, and the speeches delivered in his behalf, must be convinced that he did neither; and that in making an example of the two instigators and confederates of the Indians, and seizing upon fortresses, which were only used for hostile purposes, he avenged and served the cause of humanity, and the highest national interests. From Washington, he came to Philadelphia, and proceeded to New York. Wherever he appeared, he received the smiles and unceasing plaudits of a grateful people. At New York, on the 19th February, he received the freedom of the city in a gold box; and there as well as in Baltimore, the municipal councils obtained his portrait, to be placed in their halls.
After the cession of the Floridas, the president appointed him first as a commissioner for receiving the provinces, and then to assume the government of them. On the 1st July, 1821, he issued, at Pensacola, his proclamation announcing the possession of the terri. tory, and the authority of the United States. He also at once adopted rigorous measures for the introduction of a regular and efficacious administration of affairs.
The injury which his health had suffered from the personal hardships, inevitable in his campaigns, forbade him to protract his residence in Florida. Accordingly on the 7th October, 1821, he delegated his powers to two gentlemen, the secretaries of his government, and set out on his return to Nashville.
In this year, the corporation of New Orleans voted $50,000 for erecting a marble statue appropriated to his military services.
On the 4th July, 1822, the governor of Tennessee, by order of the Legislature, presented him with a sword, as a testimonal of the “high respect entertained by the state for his public services.
On the 20th August, the General Assembly of Tennessee recommended him to the Union for the office of president of the United States.
In the autumn of 1823, he was elected to the senate of the United States, in which body he took his seat.
Before his election to the senate, he was appointed by the president, with the concurrence of the senate, minister plenipotentiary to Mexico, but he declined the honour.
In person, General Jackson was tall, and remarkably erect and thin. His features were large; his eyes dark blue, with a keen and strong glance; his complexion was that of a war-worn soldier. His demeanor was gentle and'easy; affable and accessible to all ; of great mildness and kindness of disposition.
General Jackson's eminent abilities and services had early commended him to the notice of the peon! of the United States, as a suitable candidate for y presidency. He was nominated by his own stat Legislature, (Tennessee,) and soon became the popu lar candidate. Of the electoral votes which were